Video Compression for Surveillance System

Video compression become an hot topic of the month for a long time yet,. We originally produced an article on compression and recording in the 2007, when it really was very much in headlines of DVR and Security camera product topics.We thought video recording compression in CCTV would develop at a rate comparable with the PC and video industry but this has not happened. The PC industry and processors have increased tenfold in power and speed at significantly lower prices. One area of great interest to digital video images is the capacity of hard disc drives.

There was a lot of progress has been behind the scene with developments of DVR and Surveillance system with various compression techniques to, create more efficient surveillance system with smaller file sizes. It may be worth revising some of the techniques involved in video compression for surveillance systems. The following is a brief review of principles and Practice of CCTV.

Principles of Video Compression.

In Video compression technology each field is divided in to an array of individual points or pixels. At each of these points, converters convert voltages representing the color and brightness at that point to a binary digital number. This array of binary digital numbers can then be stored digitally in memory with a name cross referenced against time and date. A single frame of monochrome video use about 450Kb (Kilobytes) of space for storage and single frame of color needs about 650Kb. This is the uncompressed frame size that would be needed for storage on hard disc..

For example to store a video length of a videotape, we will need a total storage capacity of about 300GB (Gigabytes) would be needed for one camera. This is considerably very large hard discs for a camera for 2 hours of recording. The technique of reducing the amount of space required is generally referred to as video compression.

The video picture frame contains a large amount of redundant information in surveillance DVR that can be eliminated without a great loss in perceived picture quality. A common types of compression used are MPEG, MPEG2000, MPEG4, H-264. Most compression methods are effective up to a certain point, before image quality quickly degrades.

To reduce the amount of size required to store the video signal can be represented in a form known as YUV. The YUV format consists of the Y (luminance) and UV (color difference) signals. The advantage of using YUV format is that fewer bytes are needed to digitize the video. Normally, recording all of the color base components; red, green, blue would need three bytes, one byte for each color. If we are using YUV format the luminance can be digitized as one byte and the color difference signal as one byte. Which mean that we need only two bytes rather than three, a saving of one third of the storage space required? This technique can be used together with compression to minimize the hard drive usage.

Type of Video Surveillance Compression.

The most known used standard compression for Security DVR and surveillance systems are, JPEG, JPEG2000, MPEG4, H264. Using JPEG compression can compress about 15:1 compression. Another more recent compression standard was devised by the Motion Picture Expert Group specifically for the digitization of moving images. This standard is given the name MPEG. This standard makes use of the redundancy between adjacent frames.

MPEG-1 contains three types of encoded frames. This type of compression contains all of the video information required to make a complete picture. Predicted frames are generated by previous I-frames or P-frames and are used to generate future P-frames. Bi-directional Predicted frames are generated using both previous and future frames. A complete sequence of frames is made up of a series of these different frame types with more than one I-frame for every 10 P- or B-frames. This process is known as inter-frame and allows compression ratios of 100:1.

MPEG-2 is the most common format used in the latest DVD technology, which can store about 90 minutes of VHS quality video and audio on to only 600Mb of disk space, such as a CD-ROM. MPEG has number of disadvantages to MPEG compression. Firstly, in order for MPEG to achieve high compression it needs the video signal not to change abruptly from frame to frame. Since many video recording applications require multiplexing because more than one camera must be recorded, the rapid change from frame to frame as cameras are switched defeats the inter-frame correlation technique used in MPEG.

MPEG-4 is the most popular compression for security DVR and surveillance systems; it uses media objects to represent aural, visual or audiovisual content. Media objects can be synthetic like in interactive graphics like in digital television. These media objects can be combined to form compound media objects. MPEG-4 multiplexes and synchronizes the media objects before transmission to provide QOS (quality of service) and it allows interaction with the constructed scene at DVR machine.

Compression organizes the picture frames in a hierarchical fashion where the lowest level has primitive media objects like still images, video objects, and audio objects. MPEG-4 has a number of primitive media objects which can be used to represent 2 or 3-dimensional media objects. MPEG-4 also defines a coded representation of objects for text, graphics, synthetic sound, talking synthetic heads.

Visual part of the MPEG-4 standard describes methods for compression of images and video, compression of textures for texture mapping of 2-D and 3-D meshes, compression of implicit 2-D meshes, and compression of time-varying geometry streams that animate meshes. It also provides algorithms for random access to all types of visual objects as well as algorithms for spatial, temporal and quality scalability, content-based scalability of textures, images and video. Algorithms for error robustness and resilience in error prone environments are also part of the standard.

For synthetic objects MPEG-4 has parametric descriptions of human face and body, parametric descriptions for animation streams of the face and body. MPEG-4 also describes static and dynamic mesh coding with texture mapping, texture coding with view dependent applications.

Security DVR Compression

Security Camera for my business

Security Cameras today are becoming more and more of a standard for urban businesses, restaurants, fast food, gas station, pizzerias, ice cream, coffee shops, and other retail location. Any business large or small can benefit from the increased surveillance Security System in your business you have so much to gain from security to loss prevention, employee activity and more. The cost savings from inventory loss reduction and increased employee productivity make these camera systems literally pay for themselves in number of months. Having a surveillance security Camera System will help prevent vandalism, cut down on loitering near your establishment, and improve the controlling your business. A franchise owner, with the right security equipment, can save tons of money and keep his business secure.

With full remote camera viewing and playback, a CCTV Security Camera System can help a store owner ensure even if he is not there that his business operate as his will and the employees function by his orders when he is not there to monitor them. From anywhere in the world, a store owner can make sure that his or her business is running and he can monitor his business and playback any event that accurse in his business. With a CCTV system for your business you as a store owner can do this and much more.

Surveillance system

Security Camera! The Legal side of issue

Surveillance Issue Question

People can often be reluctant to install surveillance system because they think it increases liability. From our experience, a security camera system decreases liability since the owner of a location is taking steps to provide a secure environment.

But if the surveillance system is not 24/7 monitored, does this give the occupant a false sense of security? did you ever heard a situation where an owner is liable for cameras that are not monitored live? And does an owner legally have to post signs stating area has surveillance cameras and/or is being recorded?

Answer

The issue of security camera installation continues to challenge property owners and security installer because there is so little precedent in this subject. There are, however, some principals of law which can be applied. One is that property owners do owe their tenants on the property some degree of reasonable protection. The level of duty has many variables.

A landlord of a residential property has a duty to provide reasonable security when the property is in a high crime area and that tenants can be at risk. Also, there are laws that affect the landlord’s responsibility to provide some level of protection, such as door locks and intercom systems, fire protection/detection is another level of security and safety which is generally required.

surveillance system, however, is rarely required by law. Now days it is more require by insurance companies. More often video surveillance is installed by property owners as a measure to reduce damages or to record the damages for police investigation after the fact.

When you decide to install surveillance system you would be wise to make it clear what cameras or other security is designed to do or detect. Signs just as conspicuous as the cameras would be a good start. A notice to commercial and residential tenants that cameras have been installed but are not 24/7 supervised and are for the owners property protection would be a good clarification.

Security camera selection Guide

How to choose a camera for security purpose?
There are many types of security camera in the market. Which one is suitable for you? These types of security cameras may come in different shapes and technologies from Bullet camera to dome camera, infrared, day night…with or without audio capability. Make sure you choose the right security camera to suit your needs. This wizard will help you select the right security camera types that will suite your needs.

Security camera selection guide

Click Here to use our security camera selection Guide

Color or Black white Security Camera?

Our eyes can see and recall things better if they appear in color – it’s

easier to track down a blond-haired person wearing a green sweater

and black jeans than a dark, grey-black figure that would be produced

in a black and White camera

Color security cameras carry an additional premium in price compared

with black and white cameras. But they are also less sensitive to light

and makes it an impractical option unless good lighting is available.

Black and white B/W security cameras have better resolution and clear

pictures in low light conditions. All infrared security cameras turn to

black and white during low light conditions and résumé to color in good

light conditions. This can be particularly useful where planning

permission makes extra lighting impractical or the security requirement

is such that intruders should not be alerted to the existence of CCTV

surveillance.

Day and night cameras are a fairly new technology. These types of

cameras can operate in full color and have a sensor that switches to

black and white camera when the light condition is lower than 1.5 lux

Bullet Security Camera features

Bullet Security CameraOne of the most common security cameras these days is the bullet camera. These are usually smaller security camera than average camera. Their shaped like a finger and are made for use in outdoor and indoor environment. These security cameras are easy to install on any surface and because of their small shape they can be easily mount on a ceiling or wall surface. Because of their smaller casing they are used as spy camera or hidden camera, like nanny cam. Their elegant shape made these security cameras popular in home and small office environment. Bullet camera comes in several model, from black @ white to color, some of these cameras have infrared capability. This security camera around your house can become the first line of defense in preventing and reporting intruders to your home or business. Some of these security camera models are full water proof, therefore can be placed underwater, these security camera can be excellent for swimming pool safety and security devices.

Many factories uses bullet security camera inside machinery to monitor their operation, thanks for their durability and small size. All these features made bullet security camera to be very popular for home security camera systems, and many other business and government facilities.

You can find pictures and specifications for these security cameras by searching DVRMaster.com website. No matter what you’re using these security camera systems for, you’ll find they give you high picture quality and control over the safety of your family and personal property.

Infrared Security Camera what do I need to know

Infrared cameras are getting more and more market share and become a common choice when selecting a security camera for a surveillance system. Let first understand whet are we dealing with from technology and functionality perspective. The need from infrared security camera arise when you need a camera for vary light, low light or low light environment. With a basic understanding of IR Camera technology that question becomes clearer.

The basic way to understand infrared camera is to describe their functionality as a camera with a flash light. The only different is that the light that produces by the flash light is not visible to the human eye. The stronger this flash light is the larger area its going to light up. For that reason all infrared camera comes with effective distance, which mean how strong is the infrared flash light is and how far area its going to reach. The infrared light in infrared security camera is not active all the time. During the day these camera produces crisp clear color picture, but when the light level drop below 1-2 Lux set level the camera IR light source kicks on and lights the space. The infrared light is produces by small led installed around the lens the more leds the stronger the light is and the larger the space can be lit up. A quality IR camera will list its effective range and angle of its IR beam.

IR cameras come in a variety of sizes and types. The sizes can range from small bullet cameras to larger more commercial look cameras.

IR Camera


To see a full variety of IR security Camera visit our
IR Cam Video Demonstration and Information page
IR Cameras are a best fit for areas with virtually no light that only need coverage in a limited or confined area. Most Infrared security cameras are IP66 Indoor / Outdoor and water proof, so you can easily install them indoor or out door environment

If large area must be covered with IR technology it can be done by using IR illuminator which are basically large infrared flash light.

Automatic gain control (AGC)

When security camera produce a quality picture , it needs a sufficient amount of light to produce a minimum stable picture, In case when the light condition is reduces to a certain level, there is insufficient light to the security camera to create a quality video picture. AGC (Automatic gain control) take action to increase the amount of amplification in these conditions to bring the video signal up to the minimum required level. Aside from increasing picture signal, AGC act as well to reduce noise and picture attenuation, and the signal to noise ratio reduced and provide quality picture, where a camera without AGC will not be able to produce a working signal.

The difference between Manual and Auto Iris Lens

Manual Iris Lenses are perfect for stable interior environment with constant good condition light, such as interior stores, malls, libraries, and offices. Manual Iris Lenses are best suite for these type of locations with stable light condition, The auto iris needs to setup ones on the initial setup of the security camera installation.
Auto Iris Lenses in the other side are adjusting automatically to different light conditions and can be place in location where the light condition is changes like out side environment /Day night or indoor where the light condition is not constant. Auto Iris Lenses are connected to the security camera with a special cable powered through cameras power supply. The iris for these security camera lenses automatically opens and closes according to the changes of the light conditions. If the light level is change to low light (like evening), the lens iris opens up to allow more light for optimum picture quality, and when the light level goes up, morning on day time, it closes the iris so that incoming light does not overwhelm the security camera

Auto Iris Lens Manual Iris

security camera lens Manual security camera lens

Port Forwarding for security dvr (Linksys)

To setup port forwarding for your security DVR on this router your PC Based DVR or standalone DVR needs to have a static ip address. When you are finished setting up a static ip address, please followed these instructions to setup your forwarding in your router.

Open a web browser like internet explorer or Firefox and enter

the ip address of your router in the address bar of your browser. By default the ip address should be set to 192.168.1.1. if you change the default IP or is not connecting, use your computer gateway IP address. to get your computer gateway IP address Click in windows START > RUN > Type CMD and press enter. you will get a black screen > type ipconfig.

You should get a box prompting you for your username and password. linksys is not using username. By default the username is blank, and the password is admin. Click the Ok button to log in to your router.

Click on the Applications & Gaming in the to menu.

You should now see Port Range Forwarding menu. When you’re finished, click Save Settings near the bottom of the screen to save your changes.

When you’re finished, click near the bottom of the screen to save your changes.